Roberts, J.E., King-Thomas, L., & Boccia, M. L. (2007). Behavior indexes of the efficacy of sensory integration therapy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 555-562.
The authors performed a single-case study on a boy age 3 years and 5 months with sensory modulation disorder (as diagnosed by the Sensory Profile which noted tactile and auditory processing issues and sensory seeking behaviors) and delayed communication skills. He had been given a reduction in school hours due to classroom behaviors of phycial and verbal aggressive, throwing objects, mouthing objects and touching others within a classroom setting. Treatment was given in an ABAB format: 2 weeks of no treatment, 5 weeks of intense SI therapy (3 times per week), 2 weeks of no treatment, and 2 weeks of treatment. Success was gaged by teacher report of observed behaviors. The SI treatment was provided by a therapist trained by Jean Ayers.
At the end of the study all aggression and mouthing behaviors had diminished. There was a 50% decrease in teacher intensity needed to manage the child's behavior and he was engaged in classroom activities for 70% of the time, a 40% increase from the start of the study.
The child continued with once per week OT which was reduced to once per month over a 3 year period. At the age of 6 he was diagnosed with ADHD.
This is a nice look at the early stages of a boy with ADHD and the affect of intense early intervention.
See also the article by Ermer & Dunn regarding the using the Sensory Profile to differentiate typically developing children, children with ADHD, autism, and other disabilities.
Ermer, J. & Dunn, W. (1998). The sensory profile: a discriminant analysis of children with and without disabilities. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52, 283-290.